понедельник, 7 мая 2012 г.

Dover Castle (НИТ)

Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover in the English county of Kent. It was founded in the 12th century. It is the largest castle in England.


History

Roman

The site may have been fortified with earthworks before the Roman invasion in AD43. It is suggested on the unusual pattern of the earthworks which does not perfect fit for the medieval castle.

The site also contained one of Dover's two 80-foot Roman lighthouses. One still survives. (on picture)


Saxon and early Norman
It may have been improvements to a Saxon fort, centred on the Saxon church of St Mary de Castro (on picture), Although archaeologists suggest that it was a new motte and bailey design. 


Henry II to early modern times

During the reign of Henry II the castle began to take recognisable shape. The inner and outer baileys and the great Keep belong to this time.

New gates were built into the outer curtain wall on the western (Fitzwilliam's Gate) and eastern (Constable's Gate) sides. During the siege, the English defenders tunnelled outwards and attacked the French. 




Section of the western curtain wall leading to Peverell's Gateway


















Napoleonic

During the Napoleonic Wars massive rebuilding took place at the end of the 18th century. William Twiss, the Commanding Engineer, strengthened the Spur at the northern end of the castle, adding a raised gun platform. Twiss also constructed Canon's Gateway.

Twiss and the Royal Engineers created a complex of barracks tunnels about 15 metres below the cliff top and the first troops were accommodated in 1803. At the height of the Napoleonic Wars, the tunnels housed more than 2,000 men.

The secret wartime tunnels

During the Second World War the tunnels were converted into an air-raid shelter and then into a military command centre and underground hospital.

Later the tunnels were to be used as a shelter for the Regional Seats of Government in the event of a nuclear attack.





The Second World War Coastal Artillery Operations Room in the Secret Wartime Tunnels















Link

Tunnel levels are denoted as A - Annexe, B - Bastion, C - Casemate, D - DUMPY and E - Esplanade. Annexe and Casemate levels are open to the public, Bastion is 'lost' but investigations continue to gain access, DUMPY (Deep Underground Military Position Yellow) is closed, as is Esplanade (last used as an air raid shelter in the Second World War).

The castle today

Dover Castle is also recognised as an internationally important structure. The castle, secret tunnels, and surrounding land are now owned by English Heritage and the site is a major tourist attraction. The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is officially head of the castle, in his conjoint position of Constable of Dover Castle, and the Deputy Constable has his residence in Constable's Gate.

The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment Museum is located in the castle.


Thank you for attention.

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